Depression and Nutrition
Eat, drink, and be merry.
We do not catch a
bacterial infection because we don't have enough antibiotics coursing through
our blood stream. We do not get cancer because we
do not have enough chemotherapy in our bodies. We do not get heart disease
because we do not have enough heart medications in our medicine cabinets. And we do not get clinically
depressed because we're not knocking back enough antidepressants each
In your basic biology class we are taught that our blood is manufactured, that
it begins, in the bone
marrow. In Chinese medicine, we are
taught that our blood begins on the end of our fork: we are what we eat.
Is there a nutritional connection
to depression? Considering that there is a nutritional connection to nearly
every dis-ease in the books, the odds are on: Yes. While visiting a friend he
opened a book to an underlined statement (telling me, "I bought this book
because of this sentence) that read: "85% of our serotonin is created in
the gut." Serotonin is considered a "brain" chemical. Serotonin,
whether created in the gut or in the brain, begins on the end of your
The Quest for Answers
I was diagnosed as clinically
depressed in 1994. (Six months later they changed that diagnosis to bipolar.) I was given Zoloft, and my whole world changed. I
could concentrate. I could actually sit down and read without my mind wandering between paragraphs. I could actually listen to a conversation without my own
thoughts getting in the way. To put it more dramatically, I was not about to
commit the suicide I had planned to commit for months and months. I was just moments away from the actual act when the whole world opened up and told me,
you'll be fine.
Zoloft saved my life. But the
simple fact is, I was not clinically depressed because I did not have enough
Zoloft in my body. I was clinically depressed because my diet lacked key
Within a year or so I discovered
that Zoloft was messing with my liver function. I was then put on Nefazodone. I
soon discovered that I was one of the .4% who was allergic to it and was placed
on Wellbutrin, which had the added benefit of helping me to quit smoking.
However, in late 1998, I read an article about an experiment using
Celtic Sea Salt. I do not have the original article today, but I recall that prisoners,
especially violent prisoners, were given Celtic Sea Salt without their knowing
it and without the guards being informed either. Since violent prisoners are split up in these
large institutions, there was in another cell block a control group that was
kept on regular table salt. Guards daily have a
lot of paperwork. They have to report "incidents," fill in queries,
and report on events. Within less than a month, reports coming from the cell
block getting the Celtic Sea Salt showed that incidents were down and behaviors
were significantly improved. Significant simply means that the changes were not
due to "coincidence." The salt had had an effect. (To read our
original article on Celtic Sea Salt, Click Here.
Perhaps the simplest of all studies showing the
connection between nutrition and depression was published in
1995, 32:2, 98-105:
Vitamin supplementation for 1 year improves mood,
by Benton D; Haller J; Fordy J
Department of Psychology, University College Swansea, UK. Here is the abstract:
The possibility that the taking of vitamin
supplements may influence mood was explored. One hundred and
twenty-nine young healthy adults took either 10 times the
recommended daily dose of 9 vitamins, or a placebo, under a
double-blind procedure, for a year. Males taking the vitamins
differed from those taking the placebo in that they reported
themselves as feeling more 'agreeable' after 12 months. After 12
months the mood of females taking the vitamin supplement was
significantly improved in that they felt more 'agreeable', more
composed and reported better mental health. These changes in mood
after a year occurred even though the blood status of 9 vitamins
reached a plateau after 3 months: this improvement in mood was
associated in particular with improved riboflavin and pyridoxine
status. In females baseline thiamin status was associated with poor
mood and an improvement in thiamin status after 3 months was
associated with improved mood.
Update (12/08/07): One of our
friends, Dr Robert Rowan sent us a recent newsletter (Second
Opinion) of a new study that shows SSRIs (Selective serotonin
reuptake inhibitors) inhibit the
absorption of calcium into your bones. He says: "Researchers
found that daily use of SSRIs can cause a 4% reduction in bone
mineral density in your hips. The lower spine lost 2.4% of bone
density." Additionally, SSRIs can lower your blood pressure which
can result in falling; a perfect prescription for broken bones.
He goes on
to relate how SSRIs are over prescribed. He notes that Dr David
Golzman, a senior investigator in this study (published in
Arch Intern Med.
2007;167:188-194) discovered that prescriptions for antidepressants
soared by more than 30% between 2000 and 2004, and quotes the
doctor: "And that puts a lot of people at increased risk for
fractures over and above the risk that they already have as a result
of the fact that they're aging and are taking other medication,
which may also predispose to osteoporosis"
Rowen also reminds us that SSRIs do not work for 70% of those taking them.
Dr Thomas Insel, the directory of the
National Institute of Mental Health points out that only 30% of the
healthiest, highly educated, currently employed, Caucasian women met
the criteria for remission, adding: "The gulf between research and
practice has led to the unfortunate current state where too many
research studies have little immediate relevance to practice, and
too little practice is based on research evidence."
are not the answer to depression. Perhaps they can help you
initially, but as always, getting to the cause of the problem is
always the best answer.
At one point in my care, my psychiatrist recommended Lithium. I've seen
what people look like on Lithium; very reminiscent of my early drug days in the
sixties. I refused the drug, but told my psychiatrist I'd get some naturally.
Celtic Sea Salt contains natural Lithium
now, Celtic Sea Salt is the only salt I'll use
(with the exception of a bit of
Original Himalayan Crystal Salt™ at
times) and I use it on everything. Within
six months a using this salt, I took a
battery of tests at the VA hospital and they told me I was no longer
bipolar. I can think of nothing else I did that would have
accomplished this so quickly.
In researching our 3rd Edition of
the Wellness Directory of Minnesota™ with our focus on Cardiovascular Wellness, I
discovered that B vitamins supported heart function; that Congestive Heart
Failure, referred to by Dr Bruce West as "beriberi of the heart," was
due to a B vitamin deficiency. Being thorough, I began reading up on the B
vitamin complex and discovered that they are also brain food.
In the early nineties, there was
a big commercial push for brain nutrients. Every vitamin company had brain
drinks and brain foods and brain stimulants. I recalled that one of the
ingredients common to all these fad mixtures was Choline.
Choline is a B vitamin that is
the precursor of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and is essential for optimal
memory function. Choline, being water soluble, is absorbed through the blood
and protects and nourishes other chemicals that support memory. Choline, along
with B-12, is necessary for myelin
You've heard that fish is brain food? Well, fish contains a lot of choline.
Choline is also found in eggs, fermented soy, dark greens, liver, yeast, and wheat
Inositol, another part of the
B-complex, is also remarkably effective against depression, panic attacks, and obsessive-compulsive
disorder (OCD) in several studies. The effective dose was 12 grams per day for
four weeks. Inositol has no side effects and is as effective as
All of the B vitamins are water soluble,
meaning they don't last long in your body and must be replaced (except for B-12
which is stored in the liver as we will see later).
So I went on to continue my
research into the B vitamins and I found an article by Dr Judith DeCava, PhD
called "Vitamin B Complex in Human Nutrition." She listed symptoms of
B vitamin deficiency and at the top was mild to severe depression. She went on
to list: forgetfulness, vague
fears, uneasiness to panic, mood swings, rage, morbid thoughts, hostility,
restlessness, apprehension, constant feeling that something dreadful is going to
happen, suspicions, instability, anxiety, mental confusion, noise, sensitivity,
inability to handle stress, hearing noises, voices, etc., loss of ability to
concentrate, impaired intellect, loss of memory, nervousness, loss of ability to
concentrate, impaired intellect, loss of memory, nervousness, weakness, fatigue,
lightheadedness or dizziness, digestive problems, hypochlorhydria (insufficient
stomach acid production), constipation or diarrhea, stomach pains, decreased or
increased appetite, craving for sweets, heart palpitations, chest pains,
neuralgia to neuritis, muscular soreness, pain, tingling or achiness, cold hands
and feet, heightened sensitivity to touch and/or pain, menstrual complaints,
soreness of the mouth, dermatitis, acne, burning or itching eyes, difficulty
swallowing, sore throat, hypochondria, headaches, insomnia or sleep
Additionally, I learned that B-12
vitamin deficiency is common in people over 40 because it (like many of the B
vitamins) relies upon stomach acid to be absorbed. Unlike the other B vitamins,
it also needs to bond with something called "intrinsic factor." Those
of Scandinavian, English, and Irish descent often lack this "intrinsic
factor" (produced by the parietal cells of the stomach). I note the age 40
(though it could happen earlier) because as we age our digestion slows, we
produce less stomach acid and less intrinsic factor, thus I discovered
sublingual forms of B-12 to help my body absorb it better. There are liquids and little
pink pills that you hold beneath your tongue and facilitate absorption that way.
B-12, though it is
is stored in the liver and not washed away like most water soluble vitamins.
However, it can take years before a deficiency in B-12 shows up, though the
symptoms can resemble Alzheimer's disease in extreme cases:
|It may takes years to
develop a B-12 deficiency and the resulting neurological effects will be
noticed before it can be detected by the usual blood tests. Testing
urine levels of methylmelonic [Sic.] acid is the best way of assessing a B-12
deficiency and will detect it before the blood levels of B-12 will
record outside the normal range. A B-12 deficiency causes slowly
progressing and irreversible nerve damage. New evidence suggests that
B-12 can be deficient even though pernicious anemia is not present. Even
in cases where the blood does not indicate it, B-12 may be dangerously
deficient and can contribute to such problems as mental deterioration,
confusion, depression, and other cognitive problems.
Source: "Vitamin B
Deficiencies" by Karen Railey; http://chetday.com/vitaminbdeficiencies.html
The best form of B-12 is Methylcobalamin. Methylcobalamin seems
to reverse nerve damage and has been reported in medical literature to help
prevent and reverse peripheral nerve damage in conditions including multiple
sclerosis, diabetes, and nerve damage caused by chemotherapy.
Vegetarians are often deficient
in B vitamins as the foods richest in B vitamins are animal products. There are
B vitamin analogues found in yeast and sea weeds, however there is also a great
controversy over whether B vitamin analogues are the same as B vitamins and let
me tell you that, personally, I've spent the better part of that past two years
trying to untie this little knot to no avail. Someday someone will come forward
and tell us what's up with this, we can only hope.
Folic Acid is part of the B Vitamin
complex and clinical studies abound on how it can relieve depression
better than antidepressants alone, with women in particular
Homocysteine is an intermediary amino acid
associated with a variety of diseases, including heart disease. Elevated levels
of homocysteine has been associated with depression disorders, as well as anger
attacks caused by depression. Your B Vitamin complex contains nutrients that can
lower homocysteine levels.
Few people know that the brain is
60% cholesterol. Perhaps fewer know that lecithin makes up about 30% of the dry
weight of the brain. Lecithin contains a lot of choline and contains a vitamin
not yet recognized by nutritionists called vitamin J. Vitamin J is pure brain
food and is needed for good, healthy nerves.
Lecithin also contains phosphatidyl-serine. It used to be thought that once brain cells die, they're gone forever
and that new brain cells cannot be grown. However, according to Dr James Balch,
MD, more than 60 human studies and over 3000 scientific papers have demonstrated that new brain cells can be
grown and even Alzheimer's symptoms (language deterioration, fatigue,
depression, poor judgment, vision and hearing loss, etc.) can be reversed, and it's
the phosphatidyl-serine that does it. I add liquid lecithin to my
salad oils. There are some expensive supplements containing phosphatidyl-serine,
however, I prefer to let my food be my medicine when I have the option.
The best B vitamins are found in
food. If you are taking a B vitamin complex, or a daily multi-vitamin, keep this
in mind: most vitamins are crap. You body cannot survive on synthetic food, how
is it supposed to survive on synthetic vitamins? The best B vitamins made today
come from Standard Process Labs, however, they do not sell to the public; they
sell to health care professionals only, doctors and chiropractors. You can order
it by calling Dr Bruce West's vitamin company called Immune
Systems, at 800.231.8063. My second choice would be
NOW Foods, B Complex. They
are inexpensive and are not synthetic.
Clinical Rheumatology (July, 2006)
reported on a study in the UK where those suffering from vitamin D
deficiency scored much higher on anxiety and depression tests than
those who had healthy vitamin D levels.
With the spate of studies showing
that Vitamin D can lower your chances of certain cancers by 70%,
everyone should be getting at least 1000 IU of Vitamin D daily.
In the July 07 issue of the New England
Journal of Medicine, a report was published detailing the
widespread vitamin D deficiency in our population
─ as much as one billion people.
The best form of Vitamin D is Vitamin D-3, the
exact same type made in your body by sunlight.
Most nutritional physicians recommend
between 1000 IU and 1500 IU daily, however, on study found that
depression during winter months was significantly reduced among
study subjects who took high daily doses of vitamin D (4,000 IU) for
a period of one year.
Seasonal Affected Disorder (SAD) is a
direct link between depression and lack of Vitamin D, though the
simple lack of sunshine, something that can brighten up your day,
has to be considered. On a dreary day, we just feel dreary.
Vitamin D is very inexpensive. You
get it free from the sun, but when the sun isn't visible, or you
just can't get out into it, it's still pretty cheap. Check out the
prices at the link below:
At one point in my research, I began
experimenting. I'd take my drugs for a week on, then two weeks off. I realized I
was almost there. And then I discovered flax oil, fish oils, and DHA (docosahexaenoic
Budwig, a biochemist, was reversing cancer and heart disease with omega-3
fatty acids back in the fifties (in Germany). Little known is that she was also
relieving many mental disorders and childhood behavioral disorders. Researchers
at Harvard Medical school [Omega-3
polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in the diet and in red blood cell membranes of
depressed patients by Edwards R, Peet M, Shay J, Horrobin D University
Department of Psychiatry, University of Sheffield, UK.J Affect Disord 1998 Mar;
[Omega 3 fatty acids in bipolar disorder:
a preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial by Stoll AL, Severus WE,
Freeman MP, Rueter S, Zboyan HA, Diamond E, Cress KK, Marangell LB. Brigham and
Women's Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston,
Mass, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999 May; 56(5):407-12; http://www.biopsychiatry.com/omega3.htm],
and in Bethesda, Maryland [Essential fatty
acids predict metabolites of serotonin and dopamine in cerebrospinal fluid among
healthy control subjects, and early- and late-onset alcoholics by Hibbeln JR,
Linnoila M, Umhau JC, Rawlings R, George DT, Salem N Jr Laboratory of Membrane
Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,
Bethesda, Maryland, USA. Biol Psychiatry 1998 Aug 15; 44(4):235-42; http://www.biopsychiatry.com/fattyacids.html]
have continued on with Budwig's research into omega-3, essential fatty acids.
The conclusion is simple, the lack of essential fatty acids can contribute to
depression, as well as bipolar disorder and including them in your diet can help
to eradicate these same disorders. My only question, when it comes to these
studies, concerns how much better their results might have been had they
administered the omega-3 oils in a water soluble form.
DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) is found in
fish oils. It was discovered that DHA levels were low in alcoholics and women in their postpartum
period. Apparently alcohol helps to deplete DHA levels. As for women in their
postpartum period, because babies need DHA for proper brain development, in the
last stages of pregnancy, the baby "pulls" DHA from the mother's
stores. This is thought to be the cause of postpartum depression. Studies at
Harvard Medical school suggest "...that DHA may be associated with
depression, and the limited data available on supplementation with DHA or other
omega-3 FAs seem to support the hypothesis that DHA may have psychotropic
effects." [Docosahexaenoic acid and
omega-3 fatty acids in depression by Mischoulon D, Fava M Depression Clinical
and Research Program, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital
and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Psychiatr Clin North Am
2000 Dec; 23(4):785-94; http://www.biopsychiatry.com/dhaomega.htm]
Update: DHA is now found in a product by Udo, called
Udo's DHA Blend. It comes from algae, meaning vegans and vegetarians
can use it.
This was when I met Stan Mann and
his product Omegasentials™. Though Stan is a vegan (he avoids any foods that
come from animals) his Omegasentials™ contain fish oils because it is the only
way to get your DHA. This was the final rung of the ladder. Within two weeks of
adding the Omegasentials™ to my daily regimen, I had conquered my depression.
(Omegasentials™ is the most exciting product I have ever found in my research
and if you have yet to read Johanna Budwig Revisited to learn about its healing
potential, you should do it now. Additionally, the suggested retail price for
Omegasentials is $40.00 per two pound bag.
I've received a few letters from vegans who tell
me that I can get DHA from nuts, flax, etc., but that's because they've read
articles telling them that these foods are a great source for DHA, when in fact,
these foods are a great source for alpha-linolenic acid, which is a biologic
precursor to DHA (and EPA). However, they are created in your body, and if your
body is not in perfect condition, no conversion is possible. The liver can
create DHA if it his healthy and receives the proper nutrition. If your liver
isn't producing it, then you'll
have to have a sizable quantity of good bacteria in your gut. These bacteria take
in your alpha-linolenic acid and pass DHA and EPA. They also pass B Vitamins.
The best (and most inexpensive)
probiotics (good bacteria) we've found come from
Update: having discovered this paper: Aust N Z J
Psychiatry. 2008 Mar;42(3):192-8; Eur J Clin Nutr, 2007; 61(3):
discovered that the combination of EPA and Probiotics kicks butt in
fighting depression. EPA alone reduced symptoms by 56%, beating the
Prozac group's improvement of 50%. Another study on 124 adults (mean
age 62 years) found that drinking a probiotic-laden milk improved
their mood. Those in the bottom of the "happy" scale were much
higher on the scale after taking the probiotics.
One more thing I learned from my
research is that people who get depressed have a high alkalinity. In fact,
bipolar types can watch the pH of their urine fluctuate from 5 to 8. Testing
your urine's pH is a good idea. I lowered my alkalinity by using Omegasentials™,
and by drinking a potassium broth. Additionally, a shot of apple cider vinegar
in the morning actually helps lower your alkalinity. Here is the potassium broth
|Fill a large pot with 25% potato
peelings, 25% carrot peelings and whole chopped beets (half and half),
25% chopped onions and garlic (more onions than garlic), 25% celery and
dark greens. Add hot peppers to taste (or cayenne pepper). Add enough
distilled/purified water to cover vegetables and simmer at a very low
temperature for a minimum of 2 hours. Strain and drink only the broth,
put the veggies in a compost (I feed my chickens). Make enough for two
days and refrigerate the leftover broth. Do not store for more than two
Having beaten my depression is no
guarantee that some event will not suck me into another fog of depression. For the
most part, however, my chronic/clinical depression is gone and I've beaten my
bipoar diagnosis too. One bad day cannot be equated with clinical
depression. We all have our ups and downs. The main point is, my chronic depression is now a thing of the past. Should enough stress
build up and start to drag me back, my research has uncovered still more supplements used for
depression and anxiety that I have access to. I don't believe that these supplements
are a substitute for good nutrition, but once in a while we all need help.
St John's Wort has been touted as
a natural anti-depressant. St John's Wort is a drug. Natural or not, it is still
a drug. It should be used only as an emergency stopgap and is no substitute for
Since I did a ton of research
over the past three years, I feel I should pass on to you some of the things I've
found that also fight depression. Some can be used daily, some can be used only
in an emergency. However, do not go this alone. Have a professional work with
you and monitor your progress. And again, there is no substitute for good
Exercise - Another Strategy
Research shows that a moderate exercise program, three times
a week is nearly as effective at relieving depression as
In my struggle to relieve my
depression, I also took up tennis (again...it's been years). I also
began a daily program of Qigong/Tai Chi. This program has been
And getting out on the tennis courts
in the bright sunlight has increased my Vitamin D stores. The
cheapest source of natural Vitamin D is sunlight.
5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP): a
direct precursor to serotonin. Proven to be extraordinarily effective in
increasing levels of
serotonin in the brain. However, one out of five people who respond well to
5-HTP relapse after a month. I've recently found a version of 5-HTP that
contains L-tyrosine, a non-essential amino acid that plays an important
role in the production of neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine. In
addition, because L-Tyrosine is necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormone
and epinephrine (adrenaline), L-Tyrosine supports healthy glandular function and
Adapton or Garum Armoricum®:
extract from the brain and stomach of the Great Bluefish. Though this chemical
has a long history of helping many chronic illnesses, it is primarily used for
stress related problems; anxiety, fatigue, and depression. It is one of the
single most effective supplements for these disorders and French studies seem to
prove this out. It is an inexpensive alternative to anti-anxiety drugs such as
Xanax™, Valium™, and Buspar™ or antidepressant drugs such as Prozac™,
Zoloft™, and Paxil™. It is also used in Europe as a replacement for Ritalin™
in children with ADD.
vitamins, minerals, and Omega-3 essential fatty acids. It's effect is to increase the amount of calming, endogenous opiates called
endorphins. The polypeptides in Garum act as precursors for endorphins and other
A study in Japan showed that Garum was able to
triple the incidence of alpha (brain) waves, something normally accomplished by
narcotics and major anti-psychotic tranquilizers.
Still, for chronic depression,
this might be only a part of the solution.
Colostrum with transfer factor:
from the first milking of a cow (found in the first milkings of every mammal).
Normally this is used to boost immune function, but it also increases beneficial
neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine and prevents their re-uptake.
It also seems to improve concentration and alertness, so much so, that if used
late in the day it will interfere with sleep.
has been found to help in chronic depression, but since it is a hormone, it,
like all hormonal therapies, is a double- edged sword and we feel that the
possible side effects would wipe out any possible positive effects and we cannot
recommend it with a clear conscience. The form I use is called 7-Keto, by
NOW Foods. Here is what they have to say about it: 7-Keto® is a natural
occuring metabolite of DHEA, providing the same benefits of DHEA, without its
associated side effects. Because the body's production of DHEA declines with
age, so does the production of 7-Keto®. Weight gain is a common sign of aging
that often accompanies the decreased production of DHEA and its metabolites.
Supplementation with NOW® 7-Keto® can safely promote thermogenesis, thereby
supporting the maintenance of healthy body weight.
an amino acid. It increases
Norepinephrine levels (also associated with depression) and for those who've
relapsed using 5-HTP, DL-Phenylalanine worked like a charm.
an herb from the Maidenhair tree. Ginkgo, famous for improving memory loss,
contains terpenes that increase circulation to the brain and
other parts of the body (aids in male impotence too), and protect nerve cells. They even
seem to regenerate damaged
nerve cells. Ginkgo in a dose of 240 mg per day improves memory in Alzheimer's
patients. If used early enough, it can slow the progression of Alzheimer's.
Ginkgo has been shown to be a
very effective antidepressant, especially in the elderly. In a
study of 40 older patients who were not responding well to antidepressant
medications, one group was given Ginkgo while the control group got a placebo along with
their antidepressant. They were tested using the Hamilton Depression Scale, and
the Ginkgo group dropped from 14 to 7 after one month and
to 4.5 after two months, while the score for the
placebo/antidepressant group went from 14 to 13 over the same time period. Ginkgo
seems to reduce the loss of serotonin receptor sites.
Ginkgo can have some minor side
effects (in a small percentage of people) of mild headaches or mild stomach
upset, but these seem to go away after a short while.
Ginkgo also thins your blood, so you'll want to
discuss all your drugs and supplements with a nutritionist before
adding ginkgo to your regimen.
an analogue of CoQ10. It has many of CoQ10's properties, but does one thing
CoQ10 doesn't: it increases serotonin in the brain.
written up in our Alternative Cancer Therapies,
is the Longevity Herb from China. In addition to all its wonderful properties,
it also helps to stabilize mood.
a form of nutritional sulfur that is also written up at Alternative
Cancer Therapies and is primarily used to support connective tissue and
reverse pain in people with arthritis, also tends to normalize mood and increase
feelings of well-being.
is something we should all be taking daily (I use
it daily). It
converts many carcinogens into harmless chemicals, reduces homocysteine levels,
and increases glutathione levels (a powerful antioxidant and cellular
detoxifier). It is also supports our capillary system, has antiviral properties,
and protects the liver. High homocysteine levels are associated with both
depression and heart disease.
the latest craze in the world of alternatives (tons of junk mail about SAMe in my
mail box). However, upon further research, all of the fabulous results from this
supplement were gotten from the injectable form only. However, we have now found
more studies (at
MedScape) that seem to show that SAMe works better
than the placebo in both depression and pain relief (from chronic
(also known as betaine), and Dimethylglycine DMG,
are methyl donors that help in the production of several brain
chemicals and hence improve mood, energy, wellbeing, alertness,
concentration, and visual clarity. DMG (I use this daily too), has
anti-tumor properties, modulates the immune system, acts as an
anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal agent, and increases oxygen
utilization, while decreasing lactic acid formation and making
energy production more efficient.
Vitamin C and vitamin E:
indicate that levels of vitamin C are lower in people with
depression. Low levels of vitamin E are also to major depression.
Zinc: published in
J Affect Disord
1999 Dec; 56(2-3):189-94, was a study showing that "There
is now some evidence that major depression is accompanied by
activation of the inflammatory response system (IRS). Other signs of
IRS activation, which have been reported in major depression are
lowered serum zinc (Zn) and serum albumin (Alb) concentrations.
15 to 30 mg daily is the
How to Improve Fading Memory
and Declining Thinking Skills with Nutrition, an eBook by Karen Railey.
Institute of Mental Health
The Guide to Depression and Intimacy for Men