An American Epidemic
an immune response; a response to an infection, an irritation, or an
injury. Immune cells are called to the site through the blood
stream. The blood vessels near the site become miraculously
permeable and the site becomes warm and red due to the increased
blood flow (warm, hence inflammation).
macrophages engulf microorganisms and phagocytes are called in. Some
immune cells try to “eat” the invaders; others excrete hydrogen
peroxide (and other oxidative chemicals) trying to kill them so they
can be cleaned up by the phagocytes and friends.
a part of the body’s natural defense system against injury and
inflammation, on the other hand, is a disease. The system has gotten
hung up, and instead of protecting the organism (our bodies) it
starts to kill the organism, slowly but surely.
medicine is starting to admit that chronic inflammation is the main
contributing factor to all chronic degenerative diseases, and the
root cause of the two greatest killers in America: Cancer and Heart
Disease. Indeed, chronic inflammation might just be the root cause
of all degenerative disease.
Chronic inflammation may be the root of all degenerative
disease. [Andrew Weil —
would certainly simplify preventive medical practices (even as non
existent as they presently are), but I find it interesting that once
in our early history medicine tried to create a theory that reduced
all disease into one or two categories. History does, it seems,
cytokines are the part of our immune systems that attack and kill
cells with oxidative chemicals. If they don’t stop their attacks,
they will start killing cells our bodies need. The inflammation in a
joint can eat away at our cartilage and you’ve got a serious case of
arthritis. Unchecked inflammation in an organ, say the pancreas, can
cause diabetes. Unchecked inflammation is now thought to be
responsible for cardiovascular disease and cancers. The elderly are
especially vulnerable to this sort of unchecked inflammation since
the body looses the ability to “down-regulate” inflammation with
You do not have
to be old to have chronic inflammation. You can have it and not know
it, until it is too late. Thus we are going to spotlight those tests
for having chronic inflammation or being at risk for chronic
After that, we
will outline the therapies to bring down chronic inflammation and
how to avoid it in the first place, for you will soon find that
inflammation begins on the end of your fork.
recall the headlines in the New York Times about blood vessels
bursting like popcorn? The article told us that the latest theory on
the cause of heart disease is inflammation. One of the doctors who
made this discovery was Dr Paul Ridker. The results of his studies
in the early 1990s landed on the front pages of the New York Times
right around the turn of the century. We’ve covered this in our
book, Bypassing Bypass (and in our Cardiovascular Articles
section), but we must tell you a little about it right
cause inflammation within our blood vessels, and the inflammation
attacks the inside of the arteries. Besides immune cells being sent
to the site to fight the inflammation, lipoprotein(a) is sent to
form a sticky patch over the damaged area; a patch that that can
grab onto cholesterol (supposedly bad cholesterol) and a cholesterol
bandage is created over the site. However, the inflammation is
inside now. The patch grows and bulges. The inflammation grows and
bulges. Eventually, “blood vessels explode like popcorn.”
The reason I
called the cholesterol “supposedly bad” is that it tried to save
your life. If the inflammation continued without being patched by
cholesterol, the artery would eventually open and you’d bleed out.
the inflammation was not halted, the bandaged area has burst and the
body must quickly respond because your artery is about to open wide.
How is this patch formed? By a blood clot.
A clot is formed
at the site to patch up the damage. Eventually, lipoprotein(a) will
come along and form a sticky patch and attract cholesterol to form a
better bandage, but there is a problem, and it has to do with our
diet and lifestyle, our hypercoagulable lifestyles. Our blood tends
to clot “too” much. The clot formed is usually bigger than it need
be, and being such, the chances of it breaking loose increase. If it
does break loose and it goes to your brain, you suffer a stroke. If
it goes to your heart, you suffer a heart attack.
This sums up a
good deal of what we have to say in Bypassing Bypass (which we are
rewriting) but there is a lot more to learn (so if you want a copy,
go get it here: Bypassing Bypass, and keep in mind that you are
eligible to get the updated online version free when it is
One final cause of inflammation is insulin
resistance and high blood sugar, along with the associated weight
First off, high blood sugar raises your
inflammation markers, IL-6 and CRP (C Reactive Protein). Then high
insulin levels in your blood activate enzymes that raise the amount
of arachidonic acid in your blood. Arachidonic acid is a
polyunsaturated non essential omega-6 fatty acid. The problem with
omega-6 fatty acids are when they exist in large quantities in the
blood without a proper ratio of omega-9s to balance them out and
Diets high in omega-6 fatty acids are very
inflammatory; and considering that many of our foods come from corn
(including our beef), the average American eats over 4 pounds of
corn each day, resulting in an over abundance of omega-6s in our
blood stream and consequentially, inflammation.
And we still have one more route for inflammation
to set in: when our bodies are insulin resistant, our brains are
leptin resistant. The more body fat we have, the more leptin we have
in our blood which triggers the immune cells in our body fat to
release Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha, which is usually a good thing
in that it helps consume nascent tumors, but in this case it's
highly inflammatory, and it can set off a cascade of events ending
in chronic degenerative illness such as MS, arthritis, cancer, and
And if you have food sensitivities, your immune
system is already overworked creating more chemicals that raise your
immune markers. The problem is, most people with food sensitivities
don't even know it.
Knowing you have
a problem is the first step to fixing the problem.
The first test
you should know about is called the C-Reactive Protein test, but please note that there are two CRP tests. The one
that is needed MUST BE specified to the lab as H.S.C.R.P., which is
High-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein test. This is crucial as
it is measured in mg/L with a range of <1.0 mg/L being a low
relative risk for "cardiovascular disease events" to >3.0 mg/L being
a high relative risk. Now, the regular test, CRP, is measured in
ml's. Thus if your results came back showing that your result is .3
you look great and are considered low risk. But, if the lab
measured CRP and not hs-CRP than the number is actually 3.0 which is
Since many MDs are still unsure of
their positions on chronic inflammation, they often order the wrong
test without realizing it. So, be on your toes and always try to
know more than your doctor.
The New England Journal of Medicine has published
two significant studies on CRP, one that concluded:
In a study of people without known cardiovascular disease, we
estimated that under current treatment guidelines, assessment of
the CRP or fibrinogen level in people at intermediate risk for a
cardiovascular event could help prevent one additional event
over a period of 10 years for every 400 to 500 people screened.
(Funded by the British Heart Foundation and others.) [http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1107477]
In another study we found at the
website showed that if your CRP is high, you are three times more
likely to die of a heart attack, no matter how many cholesterol
drugs you are on, or if your cholesterol is normal. [NEJM, 1997]
If you have
Vulnerable Plaque (the popcorn popping arteries described above) you
have an 800% greater chance of a heart attack.
In July of 2001,
JAMA published a study on chronic inflammation and the risk of
diabetes. Another test they used, besides the CRP, was an
inflammatory marker test, the IL-6. The study concluded that your
chances of developing type two diabetes are easily predicted by the
outcome of the CRP and IL-6 tests together. The ultimate test would
be the Inflammatory Cytokine Profile consisting of the two mentioned
plus TNF (tumor necrosis factor), interleukins -1 beta and 8.
You should note that your doctor will not ask for
an Inflammatory Cytokine Profile
unless symptoms exist for a specific inflammatory condition, but for
a true assessment of your inflammation index, an Erythrocyte
Sedimentation Rate (ESR) test is also required.
What is at
asthma, pancreatitis, Parkinson's, lupus, anemia, kidney failure,
psoriasis, and fibrosis might just be the start. All of these
diseases have a suspected root cause of chronic inflammation.
Extension Vitamins, we learned that seemingly unrelated
illnesses “often exhibit excess levels of pro-inflammatory markers:
- Allergy —
Inflammatory cytokines induce autoimmune reactions
— Chronic inflammation destroys brain cells
- Anemia —
Inflammatory cytokines attack erythropoietin production
valve stenosis — Chronic inflammation damages heart valves
- Arthritis —
Inflammatory cytokines destroy joint cartilage and synovial
- Cancer —
Chronic inflammation causes many cancers
heart failure — Chronic inflammation contributes to heart muscle
- Fibromyalgia — Inflammatory cytokines are elevated
- Fibrosis —
Inflammatory cytokines attack traumatized tissue
attack — Chronic inflammation contributes to coronary
failure — Inflammatory cytokines restrict circulation and damage
- Lupus —
Inflammatory cytokines induce an autoimmune attack
- Pancreatitis — Inflammatory cytokines induce pancreatic cell
- Psoriasis —
Inflammatory cytokines induce dermatitis
- Stroke —
Chronic inflammation promoted thromboembolic events
complications — Inflammatory cytokines prevent healing
Lets take a
closer look at some diseases and their inflammatory connection.
in an article entitled “Chronic Inflammation and Cancer,” by Emily
Shacter, PhD published in Oncology, she sums up her findings
A substantial body of evidence supports the conclusion that
chronic inflammation can predispose an individual to cancer, as
demonstrated by the association between chronic inflammatory bowel
diseases and the increased risk of colon carcinoma. Chronic
inflammation is caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial,
viral, and parasitic infections, chemical irritants, and
nondigestible particles. The longer the inflammation persists, the
higher the risk of associated carcinogenesis. This review describes
some of the underlying causes of the association between chronic
inflammation and cancer. Inflammatory mediators contribute to
neoplasia by inducing proneoplastic mutations, adaptive responses,
resistance to apoptosis, and environmental changes such as
stimulation of angiogenesis. All these changes confer a survival
advantage to a susceptible cell. In this article, we discuss the
contribution of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates,
prostaglandins, and inflammatory cytokines to carcinogenesis. A
thorough understanding of the molecular basis of
inflammation-associated neoplasia and progression can lead to novel
approaches to the prevention and treatment of cancer. [ONCOLOGY
conventional medicine hates admitting that sometimes we must fight
“like with like” (the theory behind homeopathy), what I gleaned from
this article that truly stood out was that irritation caused by the
oxidizing chemicals released by the immune system can lead to a
cancer. Cancer, in turn, is often treated by attacking it with
oxidizing chemicals, which a few chemotherapies are, as is Paw Paw.
chemicals are responsible for cancer, shouldn’t it be obvious (as
Shacter points out) that supplementing with antioxidants might be a
smart move to prevent cancer in the first place.
why do people age? One reason is the inflammatory process. This is
why you see people who appear much older than their age, and you see
people who look much younger than their age. One of them suffers
from chronic inflammation.
Another cause of aging are AGE's, or
Advanced Glycation End Products.
Degeneration: JAMA, in Feb of 2004 linked this one to
and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: we still don’t know which came
first, the problem or the inflammation, but these two are often found
together. In her article “Cytokine and other immunological markers
in CFS,” Dr Nancy Klimas believed that the unusual amounts of
cytokines might lead to hormonal imbalances. Often called the most
mysterious of illnesses, and hard to diagnose, we do know that
chronic inflammation accompanies both, and that treating the terrain
is a person's only hope for long term recover.
as we've seen with chronic periodontal disease, inflammation leads to bone
loss. Studies using people with inflammatory bowel disease are also
showing that bone loss progresses as the disease progresses.
earlier we mentioned that the inflammation eats away cartilage. In
Rheumatoid Arthritis, the inflammation is systemic eating away at the
entire body, an autoimmune disorder.
Multiple Sclerosis: this is
a tough one. MS has been described as an inflammatory disease of the
central nervous system. According to Professor V Hugh Perry, the
macrophage population in MS brains are much more activated than in
others, and that inflammations can be further amplified with age,
injuries, infections, and surgeries. [http://www.sedonalabs.com/news/HMinflammation.html]
anything, you must know its cause. As stated at the beginning,
chronic inflammation begins on the end of your fork, or the Standard
American Diet (SAD).
fries, chips, and burgers are the real weapons of mass destruction.
Every day there are WMDs of our diet that assault our bodies
rendering countless damage and casualties to our body’s defenses,
yielding more and more inflammation and damage. [Dr. Richard
Let us talk
There are three
types, Prostaglandin 1, Prostaglandin 2, and Prostaglandin 3. P1 and
P3 are “good” in that they dilate blood vessels, reduce clotting,
and are anti-inflammatory. It is P2 that is considered bad, mainly
because it signals lymphocytes to increase the immune response. This
in itself isn’t bad, because if you have an infection, you want P2
to do just that. However, we’re talking chronic inflammation here;
the battle is over, but the soldiers fight on.
blocks of prostaglandins come from the foods we eat, but are
synthesized (made) in our bodies. Biochemical synthesis requires
that all the parts are available plus enzymes. Enzymes are the
workers that put chemical A and chemical B together to make chemical
C. Well, it just happens that the COX2 enzyme takes lipids (fats,
mostly omega-6s) from our food and add them to arachidonic acid to
create prostaglandin 2, which signals two things: Pain and an immune
Drugs on the
market called COX2 inhibitors are designed to stop this process. And
they did. They did this so well, that we learned a bit more about
the connection between inflammation and cancer when Vioxx was
discovered to prevent colon cancer. The big drawback was that Vioxx
attacked the arteries causing heart disease.
There is another
way to inhibit and stop this process, and that is by increasing our
good fats in our diet which inhibit immune response, and take out
the things that are causing our inflammation.
should learn to cook our foods at lower temperatures. Cooking foods
at high temperatures causes glycotoxins(such as
AGE's). Glycotoxins are sugars
(glucose) bonded to critical proteins that accumulate in our bodies
naturally (but we don’t need to help the process by eating foods
cooked at high temps). As this buildup progresses, they cause cells
to signal the production of inflammatory cytokines. [www.lef.org]
This is one reason that as we age, our ability to bring “down” the
inflammation response decreases.
The Most Dangerous Foods
Funny, but we’ve been told for the longest time to avoid butter
and eat margarine. Well, the American Heart Association, even though
it had received a lot of money from the corn oil industry, finally
came out and said that trans fats “might” be deadly and that we
should cut down on them.
inhibit the enzymes in our bodies that process our omega-3 fatty
acids. They should just be avoided, plain and simple.
This is the most popular omega-6 fatty acid in our diets today.
Above we learned that omega-6s are needed to produce prostaglandin
2. Although I love the cult classic movie Attack of the Killer Tomatoes, I
have to shake my head, because I know that corn is the real killer
When I lived in
Israel, I was amazed at how much olive oil they used. Your average
Moroccan recipe called for anywhere from a half a cup of olive oil
to half a swimming pool of olive oil (especially for egg plant).
However, while I was there, the government began importing huge corn
oil shipments from the US. Suddenly corn oil usage was on the rise,
and they were exporting more olive oil than they were using. Today,
Israel is a long-term human study in dietary fats. Cancer rates are
on the rise. It will not be long before all the results are in. And
no one who studies fats will be surprised, either.
Carbohydrates: White sugar and corn syrup are in everything, it
seems. Fructose is no better. And what about High Fructose Corn
Syrup? Here you have a corn product and a highly refined
carbohydrate. We have told you again and again and again that sugar
depresses immune function. How does this work? you ask. From the
Linus Pauling institute we get this:
High glycemic-load diets have also been associated with
increased serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of
systemic inflammation that is also a sensitive predictor of
cardiovascular disease risk. Not surprisingly, in the Nurses’ Health
Study, women whose diets provided the highest glycemic loads had a
risk of coronary heart disease that was almost twice as high as
those whose diets provided the lowest glycemic loads. The
relationship between dietary glycemic load and coronary heart
disease risk was more pronounced in overweight women, suggesting
that people who are insulin resistant may be most susceptible to the
adverse cardiovascular effects of a high-glycemic load diet.
If you eat
something that is high in sugar, it stimulates the inflammation
response. One thing we know about the inflammation response is that
it taxes the immune system.
This is the last
time I want to ever have to tell any reader to avoid processed
foods. The more processed the food, the higher the glycemic level,
the more chemicals, and the less food value. If high temp cooking is
dangerous, Kellogg’s Cornflakes must be pure poison, for they are
actually heated up to 4000 degrees during the process.
If you take a
trip over the internet searching for the terms “Chronic
Inflammation,” you will eventually find the worst foods you can eat:
Donuts, Commercial Pastries (donuts, cookies, crackers), Chips
(potato, tortilla), and Sodas (and bottled Teas and Fruit Juices).
fries are cooked at high temps in trans fats. So are donuts and most
commercial pastries plus they are made from white sugar; trans fats
(shortening), and lots of white sugar, mmmmm. Chips are either high
in trans fats or high in omega-6 fatty acids, not to mention the
high-glycemic starches. And we should all know by now what’s in our
sodas and fruit juices: sugar, sugar, and more sugar.
Aspartame/NutraSweet isn’t any better; it too has been linked to
And the latest culprit is
High Fructose Corn Syrup. This, we are finding out, is just
deadly; and the food industry has silently slipped it into a huge
portion of our
Beyond what you
eat, you should be careful about how you live: diet and lifestyle
are not two separate things. When the body is overloaded in toxins,
it can respond only in one way: chronic inflammation. Smoke,
pesticides, cleaning chemicals, allergens, dust, contaminants,
herbicides all contribute to toxic overload just as much as
nutritional deficiencies. Pathogens, as we’ve already seen cause
infections that lead to inflammation. We’ve already discussed
stealth viruses; but there are many more pathogens (Parasites,
bacteria, and yeast) that are also contributing. If you don’t get
enough sleep, your IL-6 markers can go thru the roof. If you are on
drugs, antibiotics, steroids, birth control pills, they are killing
off the good bacteria in your body. Candida can flourish. And don’t
forget chlorinated water. Anything that kills off our good bacteria
allows Candida to flourish. [Read about Probiotics]
Finally there is
stress. Stress increases your natural steroids and eventually leads
to depression. Depression has been linked to the inflammatory
response. [Licinio J et al. “The role of inflammatory mediators in
the biology of major depression: central nervous system cytokines
modulate the biological substrate of depressive symptoms, regulate
stress-responsive systems, and contribute to neurotoxicity and
neuroprotection.” Mol Psychiatry, 1999 Jul: 4(4):317-27].
the following are anticoagulants or blood thinners. You
are advised not to mix them or to avoid them if you are
already taking anticoagulants or blood thinners. You
might want to visit a naturopath to help you get off
pharmaceuticals and onto safer alternatives, and to
guide you in your choices if you have chronic
Algae: This page has been
worked on and modified over the years, but this one (Algae) just
slipped right by me. I had no idea. Study after study has shown that
algae are powerful antioxidants and substantially anti-inflammatory.
They are also neuroprotective, meaning they protect the brain.
Studies on arthritis show they easily compete with the best
arthritis medications. People with inflammation sometimes develop
an increased sensitivity to pain (called hyperalgesia). One study
showed that, not only did algae lower the inflammation; they lowered
the subjects’ sensitivity to pain. The only real problem with most
of these studies is they’re all done in rats (and/or mice). This is
ridiculous since we’re talking about a food here, not a dangerous
drug. Human subjects could easily have been used in any study on
algae, though we acknowledge that the cost of the study would be
greater. Most people take their algae in the form of
Spirulina and/or Chlorella. Here is a separate list we've
published listing many of the studies we found on
algae and inflammation.
Anthocyanins are the
water-soluble flavonoid pigments in fruits and vegetables that help
inhibit inflammatory COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. [British Journal of
Sports Medicine, 2006] Many of the fruits listed below contain these
phytochemicals, however here is a graph we got from
Not in the graph is Red Cabbage, which is the vegetable with the
most anthocyanins. In fact, a study published in Scientific
Horticulture stated that red cabbage contained 36 different
anthocyanins which help with neurological functions, promote
cardiovascular health, and assist with weight loss.
taken as a tea and made from, the bark or leaves, is a diuretic and
anti-inflammatory herb used for gout, kidney stones, and rheumatism.
Oil and creams are used for swollen joints. Do not use if you are
allergic to aspirin.
Berries are wonderful
antioxidants. Raspberries, acai berries,
goji berries, blue berries, cranberries
and strawberries. All your antioxidants are needed to help fight
chronic inflammation; antioxidants are anti-inflammatory.
Black Cohosh Root (Cimicifuga
racemosa) is a Native American remedy, used mainly for “women’s
problems” (menopause). It is also used for tinnitus (ringing in the
ears) and arthritis. It contains alicylic acid, tannins, resin and
bitter glycosides, so it is contraindicated if you are allergic to
aspirin. It is an aspirin substitute, but should be avoided if
pregnant, nursing, or using anticoagulants or are on HRT therapy.
Boswellia is a rainforest
herb that in clinical studies has been shown to improve symptoms in
patients with osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Like
Curcumin, its active ingredients block the production of
inflammatory prostaglandin hormones and other inflammatory
Butterbur with Feverfew, a plant from the
UK and Europe, is an amazing anti-inflammatory and anitispasmodic
(prevents cramps). Just recently, studies in the British Medical
Journal fount that butterbur treated allergies (hey fever) just as
well as expensive medicines. Another study showed that it was far
superior to the traditional allergy medications. In a combined study
from Germany and Switzerland using a group of 330 patients, they
discovered that an extract used, called Buterbur Ze339, was just as
effective as Claritin and Tavist with no drowsiness. Dosage: 50mg
twice daily with meals. ["Treating intermittent allergic rhinitis: a
prospective, randomized, placebo and antihistamine-controlled study
of Butterbur extract Ze 339." Phytotherapy Research Vol. 19,
Issue 6.] Feverfew has been used historically for headaches and
has proved to be highly anti-inflammatory. Together these two herbs
complement each other.
has long been recognized for its anti-inflammatory properties and
works best when taken as a Vitamin C Complex (with bioflavonoids
such as quercetin and copper, calcium, and l-lysine). In a study
of people exposed to simulated sunlight, researchers found that
vitamin C and E worked synergistically to reduce skin inflammation.
In a cell study, Italian researchers noted that quercetin and
vitamin C worked together to protect cells from inflammation-induced
damage. The daily dosage should be 1,000-2,000 mg if you live in a
relatively non toxic neighborhood, up to 6,000 mg per day if you
live in lots of smog.
Pepper aka Capsicum frutescenscan, or Cayenne Pepper helps fight
dangerous blood clots, can "cool" a number of inflammatory responses
including burns, some nerve ending disorders and even possibly
arthritis. Has definite fibrinolytic activity (can break down blood
clots through enzymatic mechanism to some degree), also may be
helpful in the pain of rheumatoid arthritis and a number of bowel
diseases. Topical capsicum cream cools pain of several nerve ending
disorders such as shingles and post-therapeutic neuralgia, a drop or
two to the gum around an aching tooth works wonders. The cream can
be helpful for pain due to diabetic neuropathy, and the pain which
occurs after an amputation or mastectomy, as well as other
peripheral neuropathies such as those that occur in AIDS patients.
If you are taking anticoagulants or have a bleeding problem (slow
clotting time) do not take capsicum without your doctor's approval.
If the pepper you have eaten is too hot and starts burning you up,
eating a banana will quickly cool you down.
least 1000 mg a day, and/or
300 mg of the European drug
aminoguanidine can inhibit pathological glycation [AGE's
─ the bonding
of sugars to proteins] reactions in
the body which are now known to contribute to inflammation.
Cat's Claw, known as una de
gato and Uncaria tomentosa, is a Peruvian herb with a long history
as a remedy for inflammatory arthritis. Recent cell-culture and
animal experiments at the Albany Medical College, New York, Studies
show that cat's claw inhibits inflammation by blocking the activity
Celery seed (Apium
graveolens) has a calming effect on the nervous system, helps to
lower blood pressure, and can aid in a urinary infection. The seeds
are traditionally used to improve circulation to muscles and joints
and helps excrete uric acid. Celery seed is contraindicated if you
are pregnant or suffering from kidney disease. Like Curcumin, celery
seed can cause photosensitivity if taken in large doses.
Chuchuhuasi is an herb from the rainforests
of Peru and is used to treat a multitude of ailments. It is first
and foremost an anti-inflammatory with immunostimulant properties. It
also repairs DNA damage and has anti-tumor properties. People
traditionally have combined this with pau d’arco in their battle
against cancer. Most herbalists recommend taking between 1,000 and
3,000 mg daily.
Coconut Oil is antiviral,
antibacterial, and parasiticidal (kills parasites). Inflammation
begins with a bad terrain and germs. Coconut oil can improve the
terrain and help get rid of the germs. You have to be very careful
in your choice of coconut oil. If your coconut oil has been heat
processed, it is not anti-inflammatory, but rather INflammatory. We
get all our coconut products from
Wilderness Family Naturals.
Coffee contains chlorogenic acids, antioxidants that slow the production of
glucose after a meal and slow the release of glucose into the blood
stream, keeping insulin levels and inflammation markers low. Both
JAMA and Harvard have released studies showing that those who
consume coffee regularly have a much lower incidence of type two
diabetes. However, the coffee can’t be a mocha latte filled with
sugar. Either drink it black, or add stevia or
Additionally, one of the latest diet fads,
Svetol® is chock full of chlorogenic acids.
is the natural yellow pigment found in turmeric, a spice from India.
Curcumin is also a powerful antioxidant; is active against a range
of bacterial and fungal infections; a superb liver tonic; helps
normalize blood cholesterol, and thins the blood. In a study from
Cornell University, it was found that curcumin blocked the activity
of Cox-2. which might explain some of the herb's anticancer effects.
Curcumin is contraindicated if you are taking anticoagulants, suffer
from gall stones or obstructive gallbladder disease. Curcumin also
increases your sensitivity to the sun, so it is advisable to avoid
long periods in strong sunlight.
The daily dosage is 2.8 mg.
We have two articles on curcumin, one on
Curcumin and Cancer,
and another that goes into the problem with bioavailability, how to
beat it, and more on the benefits:
Curcumin, There's More To Tell.
Devil's claw tuber (Harpagophytum
procumbens) contains glycosides, phytosterols (suspected to have
some effect in cancer prevention), flavonoids and
harpagoquinone. It is a bitter, anti-inflammatory herb, useful for a
wide-range of joint and muscular problems, including Rheumatoid
Arthritis. It is also a digestive stimulant. Devil’s claw tuber is
contraindicated if you are suffering from stomach or duodenal ulcer,
taking anti-coagulant therapy, or are pregnant.
DHEA is a
hormone that decreases with age. DHEA has been shown to suppress
IL-6, an inflammatory cytokine that often increases as people age.
Typical doses of DHEA are 25-50 mg daily, although some people take
100 mg daily.
is a protective antioxidants with anti-inflammatory properties. A vitamin E
complex that contains gamma
tocopherol and tocotrienols provides the most broad-spectrum
protection. Take 1-2 capsules (400 - 800 IU) daily. Vitamin E is a
blood thinner. NOW Foods makes quite a few different vitamin Es with
mixed tochoperols and mixed tocotrienols. I get mine from
House of Nutrition.
Ecklonia Cava Extract is
such an important food we've dedicated an entire page to it. ECE is
one of the most powerful antioxidants known, is a powerful
anti-inflammatory that repairs arteries, lowers blood pressure,
removes plaque, and normalizes blood sugar. Read about it here:
Ecklonia Cava Extract. To order
the best form we've found:
is a preventive. If you have a cold, it won’t
end it overnight. But the odds are, if you’re taking it, you won’t
get that cold. Researchers believe that EpiCor is a more powerful
antioxidant than blueberries, that it will protect against most
known infections, reduce inflammation, fight off Candida, and
support the growth of probiotics in the intestinal tract.
Foods: foods can be alkalizing
or acidifying, anabolic or catabolic, and anti-inflammatory or
inflammatory. We are going to list for you anabolic,
anti-inflammatory foods. But first, a few rules. The first rule is:
when shopping, choose foods with only ONE ingredient. Pretty simple,
eh? In most cases, the rawer the better (just a little cooking),
though we have to admit and post an article soon on foods for which
steaming brings out the nutrients (such as Kale). Colorful foods
such as red peppers, red cabbage, tomatoes, carrots contain hundreds
of anti-inflammatory bioflavonoids and antioxidants. Here is a list
of anti-inflammatory foods: Dark Colored Grapes (red, blue, black),
Pineapple (especially these fruits), Kelp (seaweed), Dark
Green Leafy Veggies, Mushrooms (all of them, my favorite are
Shitake), Chocolate (70-75% dark), Cruciferous
Veggies (Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, Cauliflower, Bok Choy, and
especially Red Cabbage), Colorful Peppers, Hot Pepper (the hotter
the better), Superfoods (concentrated) (Spirulina, Chlorella, Wheat
Grass....there are so many to list), Broth from Beef and Chicken
Bones (chicken feet make a great clear broth, but you just can't
find them at your local supermarket).
Two powerful anti-inflammatory
foods are black rice and artichokes. Black rice contains more
antioxidants (anthocyanins)than an equal weight of blueberries. And
strangely enough, artichokes are chock-full of antioxidants too,
more than any vegetable I've yet to examine. Just some of the
antioxidants in an artichoke are quercertin, rutin, luteolin,
silymarin, cynarin, and anthocyanins. Studies on this little guy
show it supports healthy liver and digestion. And get this: it seems
to be the only vegetable that keeps its high antioxidant levels
during and after cooking, no matter which method of cooking is used.
fruits are anti-inflammatory. Those that are tart, dark colored are
usually the better anti-inflammatories. We singled out mangosteen
below because studies seem to suggest it’s the most powerful
anti-inflammatory of all fruit. After that you have pineapple and
tart cherries. Pineapple because it has some great enzymes and tart
cherries, well, they’ve been in the news quite a bit. Life Extension
pretty good article
on tart cherries. And as we’ve already pointed out, berries; all berries are
hugely anti-inflammatory (and grapes): black raspberries,
blackberries, blueberries, strawberries, Loganberry,
red-purple-black grapes, passionfruit, boisenberry, black currants.
Then you have fruits that are dark purple, red, or blue, such as
plums, black cherries, acai, and pomegranate.
Ginger inhibits Cox-2 and
another proinflammatory compound, 5-lipoxygenase. This simple herb
and condiment contains almost 500 different compounds, many of which
are anti-inflammatory. It contains many volatile constituents,
including zingiberene, zingiberole, phellandrene, borneol, cineole
and citral, and can also be used externally. Ginger is
contraindicated if you are taking anticoagulants. Large doses are
contraindicated if you are pregnant or suffering from an ulcer. The
daily dosage is 100 mg.
GLA: Although GLA (Gamma-linolenic
acid) is an omega-6 fatty acid, it has anti-inflammatory properties.
Very little GLA is converted to arachidonic acid and prostaglandin
E2; GLA actually increases production of the anti-inflammatory
prostaglandin E1. Robert B. Zurier, MD, of the University of
Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, gave GLA supplements or
placebos to 41 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Two-thirds of
those receiving GLA had a 25 percent reduction in their arthritic
symptoms. The daily dosage is 2-3 grams. I take
Now Foods Borage Oil.
Green Tea Extract: Researchers at Case Western
Reserve University, Cleveland, recently reported that the
antioxidant polyphenols in Green tea had anti-inflammatory
properties by inhibiting Cox-2 and TNFa. Genistein inhibits
prostaglandin E2 and Cox-2, and quercetin inhibits the activity of
inflammation-promoting "adhesion" molecules. It's likely that
Pycnogenol, grape seed extract, and other bioflavonoids work through
similar mechanisms. The daily dosage is 25-500 mg.
gabonensis or African Mango is something many have
been using for weight loss by balancing your hormones. In studies, Irvingia gabonensis brought HDL and LDL into a healthier
balance, lowered C-reactive Protein (an indication
and one of the main culprits behind cardiovascular disease), and
lowered their blood sugar rates. The product in the link
above is the most inexpensive form I could find, and it is mixed
with Green Tea Extract.
Jiaogulan is a potent antioxidant (gypenosides are the
active molecules) that protects the body from DNA damage, liver
disease, atherosclerosis, and is a potent anti-inflammatory.
Vitamin D: in the last few years, vitamin D has
been in the news so often that it has overtaken vitamin C as the
most important of the vitamins. However, most feel it is not a
vitamin but a hormone, affecting thousands of chemical events in our
bodies. In a March of 2012 issue of The Journal of Immunology, a
study was published linking vitamin D to the suppression of
inflammation that finally showed how it did it: by binding with DNA,
and interfering with a signaling pathway to reduce proteins in the
blood known to trigger inflammation. No one seems to agree on how
much we need in our blood or how much we need to take, but many do
seem to agree that vitamin D-3 is the best form to take if
supplementing. Low vitamin D levels have been associated with high
inflammatory markers affecting prostate cancer, heart disease, and
periodontal disease just to name a few. Personally, I take 5,000 IU
Now Foods Vitamin D-3
Now Foods Vitamin K-2
helps reduce levels of IL-6, a pro-inflammatory messenger. Vitamin K
also helps in the treatment of osteoporosis by regulating calcium
and promoting bone calcification. One 10-mg capsule daily is
recommended for prevention purposes. Vitamin K is found in leafy
green vegetables. Vitamin K and Vitamin D work together. If you take it as a supplement, vitamin K2 is the
most biologically active form.
is a unique configuration of Eicosatetraenoic Acids (ETAs) that are
related to the omega-3 fatty acids found in flaxseed and fish that
could easily be 200 to 300 times more powerful than most NSAIDs
(non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) for relief of muscle and
joint pain if used over a period of time. You seafood lovers
will be glad to know that the Green Mussel (it has all sorts of
names, but Green is always in the name, and it comes from New
Zealand) from which this oil comes can be found in the frozen food
section at your supermarket. Lyprinol can be pretty spendy, but
we've found a good brand on sale here:
Mangosteen fruit: Mangosteen might just be
the fruit with the greatest anti-inflammatory properties. Many
fruits (see below) are anti-inflammatory, but this one has some real
good research behind it. Because historically, Asian folk medicine
had used mangosteen to treat diarrhea, dysentery, fever, cystitis,
eczema and psoriasis, mangosteen, was studied in the 1970’s. It was
discovered that mangostin, a xanthone found in mangosteen, showed
anti-inflammatory effects in rats. In one recent study involving
obesity-associated inflammation, it was discovered that mangosteen
attenuated many activities that led to inflammation and reduced
inflammatory cytokines released by white adipose tissues. Another
study on animals showed that it inhibited the prostaglandin E-2 as
well as COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes, but a
out of the Mayo Clinic claimed that studies only showed a
reduction of CRP levels, and that more research is needed to examine
mangosteen’s ability to work for those suffering from arthritis.
Personally, with all the research that is already in, I’d try it on
all inflammation. You can find Mangosteen juice on the web, but I
use the organic raw mangosteen powder I get from
Meadowsweet flowering tops
(Filipendula ulmaria) contains salicylic acid, tannin and citric
acid. It is an excellent digestive remedy, that reduces acidity in
the stomach and helps to alleviate gastritis and peptic ulceration,
which makes it tremendously useful for those with arthritic
conditions who cannot take aspirin or other NSAIDs due to the side
effects on the stomach. Quite a large dosage is needed for treating
arthritis, but it does combine well with other herbs (mentioned
above), but avoid if you are allergic to aspirin.
such as Calcium, magnesium, and potassium help to fight acidity and
inflammation. Additionally you'll need some trace minerals Boron
(found in raisons, prunes, and nuts), chromium, copper, iodine,
iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium (works best with Vitamin E),
silver, zinc (abundant in fish). All of these are found in
Celtic Sea Salt.
MSM is a
form of nutritional sulfur. With the advent of chemical fertilizers,
our foods no longer have the nutritional sulfur our bodies need.
Patrick McGean, a reader of ours who has researched MSM extensively
told us, "Sulfur is the mineral which enables the transfer of oxygen
by keeping the cell membrane semipermeable. Gases do not transfer as
well as liquids through the cell membrane when the membrane is no
longer permeable, and anaerobic disease happens in the toxic carbon
dioxide trapped in the cell. Otto Warburg proved this but he never
asked why?" MSM has a long history of helping people with
arthritis, lupus, and even pollen allergies. It is necessary to good
(monounsaturated fatty acids). We list below, Olive oil, but there
are more: coconut oil (organic, cold pressed),
macadamia nut oil,
and avocado oil. These oils contain polyphenols which are powerful
inflammation inhibitors. Olive oil alone contains over 20
anti-inflammatory nutrients. MUFA's cut off the messaging molecules
that signal your body to increase inflammation, block
pro-inflammatory substances, and lower C-Reactive protein in the
blood. You need just about two tablespoons of these oils daily to
prevent inflammation, and we recommend you never
cook food in olive oil unless you keep the temperature very, very
low. Cooking destroys the benefits of olive oil. We recommend frying
only in coconut oil at a temperature no higher than 350 degrees.
N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) is a protective antioxidants with anti-inflammatory properties. NAC is an amino acid with antiviral and
liver protectant properties. One 600-mg capsule daily is
has been shown to suppress the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-a. It
contains amines including histamine, choline, acetylcholine and
serotonin. It is usually charged with minerals such as calcium,
potassium, silicic acid and iron. It strengthens and supports the
whole body. In addition to its major role as a skin herb, nettle
improves elimination of wastes via the kidneys, in particular uric
acid, making it a useful cleansing remedy and helpful in gout. You
can find many preparations of Nettle leaf at health food stores, but
picking the young leaves and making tea is one of the best ways to
take this herb, just strain well (and wear gloves when picking it).
listed a few separately, but here they are all together: Walnuts,
Almonds, Cashews, Pecans, Brazil Nuts, Pistachios, and Macadamia
Olive Leaf Extract is antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral. Clearing up
systemic yeast is another good start.
Olive Oil (extra virgin)
contains oleocanthal, a compound that prevents the production of
COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. Apparently, some studies have shown that
three and a half tablespoons is equal to 200 mgs of ibuprofen.
essential fatty acids found in fish oils contain EPA (eicosapentaenoic
DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) which are essential building blocks for the body's
anti-inflammatory prostaglandins (e.g., prostaglandin E1) and for
turning off Cox-2 and the body's pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1,
IL-6, and TNFa). In addition, omega-3 fatty acids block the activity
of an enzyme that breaks down joint cartilage. DHA might just be the most effective nonprescription supplement to
suppress pro-inflammatory cytokines. The daily dosage is 3 or more
grams. Keep in mind that the
body can make DHA and EPA from linoleic
acid (flax seed oil) if you've got healthy
your gut. My favorite food product,
contains all you need to fulfill your daily omega-3 requirements.
(Since writing this article six
years ago, I've found two products that I highly recommend and use
myself that are great forms of Omega-3 fish oils. One is
Now Foods Neptune Krill Oil, and the other is
NOW Foods Tri-3D Omega. These are what I take daily and I
suggest you check them out.
Omega-7 fatty acid. Omega-7? you say. There is a great
story on the web (at every site trying to sell you this stuff) that
goes like this: Did this Cleveland fry cook accidentally
stumble onto the heart health discovery of the century? Apparently he'd had
problems getting years and years of
cooking oil off his equipment
and pipes till some guy came along and poured this special oil into
his equipment and everything turned out looking shiny and new. That
special oil came from the sea-buckthorn and it's an Omega-7 fatty
The secret is the
palmitoleic acid content of the oil. It just kills CRP (C-Reactive
Protein) completely, and
then goes on to eat away
at the fatty deposits on your arteries. The only problem is that every
darn product on the market (even my favorite brand NOW Foods) that
contains this Omega-7 fatty acid also contains
palmitic acid, which does a job on your
pancreas and should not be consumed in any amount, at least
according to the World Health Organization, that classifies palmitic
acid in the same category as trans fats. Palmitic acid, by the way,
is found in a lot of foods naturally, even mother's milk. We are
lucky that we get it in very small amounts. The thing is, if you're
taking supplements, you probably don't want to get it in those
things you're taking to stay healthy.
So, I did my homework and I found
one brand that is purified, and sure enough, even Dr Oz recommends
it. It is called
7 Purified Omega 7 (click to read more), and it's the latest addition to my daily
regimen. Here are a list of foods that contain palmitoleic acid (we
will not list the raw meats, or raw pork, that contain them because,
let's face it, we don't eat a lot of raw meat):
loaded with sulfur compounds (see MSM above) that, besides relieving
inflammation directly, inhibit enzymes that cause joint
inflammation. The stronger the onion, the more
phenols and flavonoids. Researchers have found
that the strongest is the yellow onion, containing eleven times the flavonoids than the
white. The shallot contains the most (phenols) antioxidant activity,
and the red onion contains the most anti-inflammatory
anthrocyanins (the cardio-protective
flavonoids in grapes and wine).
Oregano is one of the most magical herbs in
your garden. It is an anti-inflammatory and a powerful antioxidant.
The best form of oregano is probably the essential oil, however, you
can find oregano in capsules. TAKE WITH FOOD.
form of oregano contains 31 known anti-inflammatories, 28
antioxidants, and four known COX-2 inhibitors.
Quercetin is a bioflavonoid
compound that blocks the release of histamine and other
anti-inflammatory agents at supplemented doses; a minimum 100 mg per
Probiotics help clean up
fungus in the gut. There are
formulas that are
even more specific against candida/yeast (Sedona Labs now calls
their candid/yeast formula
iFlora for Women). Additionally, probiotics
help turn your flax oil (linoleic acid) into DHA (docosahexaenoic
acid) and EPA (eiocosapentaenoic acid), natural
anti-inflammatories. Recent studies show that probiotics reduce both
C-reactive protein and cytokines (which turn on the inflammatory
Proteins (that are high in good
fats): Free Range, Organic Eggs, Grass
fed Meats, Salmon (wild, not farmed), Sardines
& Anchovies ((in olive oil, not
soy oil), Halibut, Mackerel, Herring (even pickled), and Tuna. These
have to be cooked at low temperatures, and eating red meat as rare
as you possibly can to avoid chemicals (homocysteine)
linked to agressive cancers.
Pycnogenol is a powerful antioxidant that
reduces osteoarthritis pain. A recent German study published in
Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapay (Vol. 60), discovered that it
inhibited significantly the COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes within 30
minutes of taking the supplement. [Nutra]
Update: We've just discovered one of the best OPCs
on the market; it is very powerful and is quickly absorbed by the
body. Pycnogenol is an OPC (oligomeric proanthocyanidin). Once we
tried the product and researched its background, we quickly joined
their affiliate program.
Rosemary is a common
kitchen herb is rich in ursolic acid. In laboratory experiments,
researchers found that the ursolic acid extract of rosemary was a
potent inhibitor of Cox-2 activity. The daily dosage is 100 mg.
St. John's wort is better
known for its antidepressant effect, but this herb also has
anti-inflammatory properties. Researchers from the University of
Frieburg, Germany discovered that hypericin, one of the
phytochemical in St. John's wort, inhibited NF-kB, which activates
Silymarin is the
antioxidant extract of milk thistle. Studies have shown that it
inhibits Cox-2 formation. This role of silymarin might explain why
earlier studies found it to inhibit the growth of prostate, breast,
and skin cancers. Daily dosage is 100-200 mg.
Spices can be very anti-inflammatory (we've
listed a few separately); so we thought we'd just list out all the
anti-inflammatory spices we've found: Turmeric, Basil, Thyme,
Cloves, Oregano, Sage, Cilantro, Cardamom, Chives, Parsley, Rosemary,
Garlic, Ginger, Cinnamon, Cumin,
Black Pepper, and Cayenne. (I now keep a bunch of fresh cilantro in
a cup of water in my kitchen for use at any time.)
Systemic Enzymes are used by
many people with chronic inflammation. Systemic enzymes fight
inflammation, fibrosis (scar tissue), and viruses; modulate the
immune system; and cleanse the blood. Wobenzyme®, Rutozyme™, and
ArthroZyme™ are just three products containing admixtures of systemic
enzymes, although we have had people write to us telling us that
Wobenzyme® saved their lives. You can find it on the web; it is not
cheap. Below are more systemic enzymes and their actions.
Bromelain is the name
of a group of powerful protein-digesting, (proteolytic) enzymes
that are found in the pineapple plant. These enzymes are anti-inflammatory
and have been proven to suppress the inflammation and pain of
many forms of arthritis, sports injuries, and joint conditions.
Papain is also used to
remove fibrin from wounds, treating jellyfish, insect stings,
and edemas. It is a powerful inflammatory that accelerates wound
healing, swelling, and adhesions after surgery.
Serrapeptase also known as Serratia peptidase, is a
proteolytic enzyme found naturally in the intestine of the
silkworm, which is used by the silkworm to dissolve the cocoon
and emerge as a moth. It is a powerful an anti-inflammatory
agent, used for bruises, for fibrocystic breast disease,
bronchitis (loosens and expels mucous), edema, and lupus.
Serrapeptase digests dead tissue, blood clots, cysts, and
arterial plaque. The late German physician Dr. Hans Nieper used
serrapeptase to treat arterial blockage in his coronary
patients. In addition to its anti-inflammatory abilities,
serrapeptase reduces pain. Physicians throughout Europe and Asia
have been using serrapeptase for years, especially as an
alternative to COX2 inhibitors, NSAIDS, ibuprofen, and aspirin.
The best form on the web is
Turmeric is a yellow spice most often
associated with Indian food, curry and yellow mustard. It is a very
powerful anti-inflammatory that can safely quash pain and swelling
in arthritis, bursitis, tendonitis, and carpal tunnel syndrome. Tumeric helps in gastrointestinal problems such as ulcers, Irritable
Bowel Syndrome, and ulcerative colitis. Turmeric is also an
immunomodulator that can brind down an excessive immune response is
conditions such as allergies, asthma, and, in animals studies,
curcumin (a main ingredient in Tumeric) appears to inhibit
development of amlyoid plaques, which would give relief in
Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. Turmeric has also shown
to prevent atherosclerosis and protects the liver from chemical and
viral damage. Curicum, the active ingredient also has been shown to
modify more than 250 oncogenes and processes that can trigger cancer
turorigenesis, proliferation, and metastasis. We will publish more
on this in our Alternative Cancer section.
Though turmeric can be taken in food as a spice, it
must be supplemented to get its full benefits, usually two capsules,
two to three times daily. Because it also thins the blood, people
with bleeding problems or who are on blood thinners should not take
it, and it tends to release bile, so for people with bile duct
blockage Turmeric is contraindicated.
Wild yam (Dioscorea villosa)
contains plant estrogens that might help suppress the symptoms of
menopause. It is also an anti-inflammatory herb, useful in joint
pain; is anti-spasmodic which seems to help in Irritable Bowel
Syndrome; and it is a bitter herb that stimulates digestion and
supports the liver function. Wild yam is contraindicated if you are
taking HRT or are pregnant or nursing or taking birth control pills.
and has an aspirin effect, and is a pain reliever and
anti-inflammatory herb. Used for muscle spasms and is a good wound
healer. Do not take if you are taking aspirin. Works like white
willow. Helps blood coagulate, unlike aspirin which prevents
clotting. Both yarrow and birch should not be used if you are
allergic to aspirin.
Back to the
I can hear some
of you chomping at the bit. Yes, we’re going to get to the root
cause of this root cause.
Inflammation has a root cause. And it all comes down to one thing,
which was stated in our paper:
The Lost History of Medicine.
A healthy body
has a pH of 7.0 and a negative electrical charge.
solution to the problem of chronic inflammation is three fold:
Alkalize, alkalize, alkalize. As Dr Baroody’s book says: Alkalize
There are no
secrets in wellness, only things we’re just not fully aware of.
system. Detox your life.
water is a good start. Eat superfoods and basic greens. Get “good
fats” into your body, the omega-3 Essential Fatty Acids, or again,
my favorite food: Omegasentials. Get rid of all vinegars except
apple cider vinegar or coconut vinegar. Toss out all cooking oils
except for coconut and palm oil. Blow up your microwave.
I was once
planning to write a book entitled: How To Cure Incurable Diseases.
Well, this is it: Detox and rebuild your body using whole organic
foods. Get alkalized and stay alkalized. Make sure your diet
consists of the basic building blocks. Run barefoot in grass and on
beaches. Fall in love. Play often.
That’s it. Shortest book on earth.
References & Further
Chronic Inflammation and Cancer, Oncology Vol 16, No 2
Mairi Rossm, Chronic
Inflammation – Rocking the Medical World
The quantitative evaluation of the use of oral proteolytic enzymes
in the treatment of sprained ankles. Injury 1975 May
Fisher JD, Weeks RL, Curry WM, Hrinda ME, Rosen LL. Effects of an
oral enzyme preparation, Chymoral, upon serum proteins associated
with injury (acute phase reactants) in man. J Med 1974
France LH. Treatment of injuries with orally administered
Varidase as compared to Chymoral and Tanderil. Praxis 1968 May
Gal P, Ted F, Skotakova J, Mach V. Systemic enzyme therapy in the
treatment of supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children.
Rozhi Chir 1998 Dec
Hingorani K. Oral enzyme therapy in severe back pain.
Br J Clin
Pract 1968 May
Mazzone A, Catalani M, Constanzo M, Drusian A, Mandoli A, Russo S,
Guarini E, Vesperini G. Evaluation of Serratia peptidase in acute or
chronic inflammation of otorhinolaryngolog pathology: a multicentre,
double-blind, randomized trial versus placebo. J Int Med Res 1990
Mazzone A, et al. Evaluation of Serratia peptidase in acute or
chronic inflammation of otorhinolaryngolog pathology: a multicentre,
double-blind, randomized trial versus placebo. J Int Med Res
Petry, Judy J. "Nutritional supplements and surgical patients"
AORN Journal 1997 June
Kelly, G.S. "Bromelain:
A Literature Review and Discussion of Its Therapeutic Applications."
Alternative Medicine Review 1996
Metzig, C et al Bromelain Proteases reduce human platelet
aggregation in vitro, adhesion to bovine endothelial cells and
thrombus formation in rat vessels in vivo. In Vivo
Starley, I.F.; Mohammed, P.; Schneider, G.; Bickler, SW. The
treatment of pediatric burns using topical papaya. Burns 1999 Nov
Newmark and Paul Shulick, authors of Beyond Aspirin: Nature's Answer
to Arthritis, Cancer & Alzheimer's Disease (Holm Press, Prescott,